6 Common Mistakes Amateur Designers Make That Can Prove to Be Disastrous

With the importance of the web these days and with more eyes watching over, it’s imperative for businesses to portray their messages in a unique and innovative way. Gone are the days when companies could only depend on their products and services to draw sales. These days marketing is just as important as other factors.…

With the importance of the web these days and with more eyes watching over, it’s imperative for businesses to portray their messages in a unique and innovative way. Gone are the days when companies could only depend on their products and services to draw sales. These days marketing is just as important as other factors. Logos, for instance, are an integral part of any business, and it requires an equal amount of attention.

The Health, Political, Educational and Economic Roles of The Graphic Artist

The Graphic artist is a visual communicator whose roles is quintessential in the areas of health, politics, education and economic advancement of a society. These unique duties are clearly discussed to show how effective any artist taking up this role can perform his responsibilities in the society. Health Roles The health personnel and workers are…

The Graphic artist is a visual communicator whose roles is quintessential in the areas of health, politics, education and economic advancement of a society. These unique duties are clearly discussed to show how effective any artist taking up this role can perform his responsibilities in the society.

Health Roles

The health personnel and workers are identified through the dress that they wore. The various medicines that they administrator are nicely kept in well-designed packages to protect them from spoilage. The hospitals and clinics where patients are cared for are a product of contemporary African architecture. The hazardous chemicals, safety tools, and equipment used by the health personnel in discharging their duties are clearly labeled by him to avoid wrong applications and injury. Comprehensive instructions on how to use the medicine given at the health centers are clearly written on the attractive labels attached to their containers designed by him.

The health education which involves sensitizing the general public on deadly diseases and how to prevent them is done through communication tools such as posters, banners, flyers, and handbills etc. The locations of these health centers are made easy through signboards and billboards.

Political Roles

The activities of the various political parties in the country are made possible through the use of works by the Graphic designer. For instance, the emblems and logos with distinguishing color schemes that help us to distinguish one political party from the other are as a result of him. Moreover, each of the parties makes the general public know of their plans for the nation as well as their campaigns through the use of posters, banners, signboards signposts, flyers, handbills and billboards which are all works of art. What about the locations to the various party offices? Is it not as a result of products done by the Graphic artist? In addition, the various T-shirts, caps, and other paraphernalia that party activists and supporters put on during political rallies and meetings are all products of art. In fact, without the products by him, political activities can not be carried out.

Educational Roles

Teaching and learning activities in the various educational institutions are effectively carried out by the use of visual communication products. The uniforms and costumes that are worn by students that bear the emblems and logos designed by him help us to identify students of the various educational institutions. The numerous colorful and illustrative teaching aids that assist greatly in teaching and learning activities. School programs and locations of schools are broadcast and made known to the general public through products such as banners, signboards, posters, and billboards. Other products like books and other stationery materials affect the teaching and learning processes directly. Announcements, school programs, and general information are made known to students through graphic communication tools such as posters, banners, handbills etc.

Economic Roles

Graphic design products are traded to earn income. People invest in the collections of works of art. The field of Graphic design also offers various employment avenues for members of the society such as Book Illustrator, Poster designer, Package designer, Cartoonist, Graphic animator, Stage designer, Printmaker etc. More importantly is the role Graphic design plays in the success of other trades. It helps in the marketing of products and services. Locations and other relevant information of firms and companies, as well as the products they produce, are nicely posted on signboards and billboards. Posters, handbills, and flyers assist in the promotion of sales of products.

Cottage industries that help in reducing the employment numbers in the country are promoted and preserved through productions in Graphic design. Setting up a cottage industry in the area does not require a lot of capital when compared to other sectors like medicine, agriculture etc. With the acquired manual skills, together with few locally manufactured tools and raw materials, the graphic designer can produce several creative works that he can sell to make a living in his own house. This helps in reducing the unemployment rates in the country.

How To Create Two and Three Compositional Effects In Art

Two-dimensional artworks are works that have length and breadth. They do not have depth or height. They are flat and are viewed and appreciated as such. Examples of two-dimensional arts include photographs, posters, mosaic etc. In two-dimensional compositions, the artist has to give particular attention to how the various elements of design are organized or…

Two-dimensional artworks are works that have length and breadth. They do not have depth or height. They are flat and are viewed and appreciated as such. Examples of two-dimensional arts include photographs, posters, mosaic etc. In two-dimensional compositions, the artist has to give particular attention to how the various elements of design are organized or arranged. Their arrangement should be governed by the various principles of design in the given space. For instance, the text and images in the picture area should be organized in such a way that there will be balance, dominance, rhythm, unity etc. at work. If serious thought and reasonable time are given to the way the various elements in a two-dimensional work is composed, the entire work will be seen as a unified whole.

A three-dimensional art form refers to any art form that has height, breadth, depth and can be viewed and appreciated from different directions. They are free-standing and are sometimes referred to as 'works in the round'. Examples of three-dimensional works include basketry, sculpture-in-the-round, ceramic ware, bead etc. In three-dimensional compositions, the arrangements of the various parts or components of the design should be guided by the principles of design. Also, in creating three-dimensional art forms consideration is given to the relationships and agreement of shapes, space, scale, weight, proportion, balance, variety, rhythm, etc. Creation of three-dimensional art forms intentions knowledge and skill in construction and building of forms, perspective as well as the mastery way of handling tools and materials.

Two and three-dimensional works are much related. For instance, before all three-dimensional works are built and constructed, they are first represented in two-dimensional drawings from various angles and views. This is done to envision how the actual three-dimensional works will look like. Two-dimensional designs give us the platform to analyze and select those aspects of our environment that motivate us to make three-dimensional arts.

The relationship or similarities between two and three-dimensional forms are easily recognized in the identification, selection and examination of visual information derived from the environment, the exploration and the use of tools and materials in producing artifacts as well as the feeling that arises in us when we see the finished artwork.

A problem needs to be identified that would require the production of a three-dimensional art form. For example, there is the need of a leather clutch bag to house some items used by an artist. Several observations of both natural and manmade objects found in the environment are made to accrue ideas for the design of the clutch bag. Through the various stages of idea development of the natural or manmade object selected, several designs are obtained through additions and subtractions of the parts of the original design. Recall maintaining the original concept or main parts of the original design while going through the various stages in idea development. The appropriate design that demonstrates the artist's ingenuity or creativity and best addresses the problem identified are selected.

The final sketch of the design is drawn in a two-dimensional form showing various views of the design. This paves the way for the building of the actual clutch bag with the appropriate tools and materials so leather in a solid three-dimensional form.

There are a series of activities that are involved in both two and three-dimensional compositions. These are:

1. Visual investigation: This reflects to the exploration of the visual world through keen and critical observation of nature with the eye. These explorations of the eye are put on paper in the form of drawing whether in two or three-dimensional composition.

2. Learning of skills: Skills in production processes are essential in both two and three-dimensional compositions. For instance, a skill in layout designing is required in all compositions be it two or three dimensions.

3. Problem-solving: Both two and three-dimensional compositions are made with the view of addressing or solving an identified problem. Finished works of art are produced as a result in arresting those problems.

Pattern Making As an Art Decorative Technique

A pattern is an organized arrangement of the elements of design such as dots, lines, shapes, textures, colours etc. on a surface using any appropriate technique for decoration. Pattern making is an experimental process since the resultant designs cannot be predicted by the artist. Patterns can be used as designs for paper bags, clothes, greeting…

A pattern is an organized arrangement of the elements of design such as dots, lines, shapes, textures, colours etc. on a surface using any appropriate technique for decoration. Pattern making is an experimental process since the resultant designs cannot be predicted by the artist. Patterns can be used as designs for paper bags, clothes, greeting cards, fringes, garlands or tassels, and pop-up. There are several techniques in pattern making. Examples of pattern making techniques are Sponging, Veining, Blowing, Spraying, Spattering, Stippling, String Pulling, Wax-resist/crayon batik, Marbling, Scribbling, Rubbing-in, Rubbing-out etc.

Natural Resources for Artistic Expression

The resources available in the natural environment can be utilized in the production of works of art. There are three main sources in nature that artists rely on for the creation of various artefacts. The sources are i) Plant Source ii) Animal Source iii) Mineral Source Plant Source This is the resources obtained from plants…

The resources available in the natural environment can be utilized in the production of works of art. There are three main sources in nature that artists rely on for the creation of various artefacts. The sources are i) Plant Source ii) Animal Source
iii) Mineral Source

Plant Source

This is the resources obtained from plants and the trees in the environment. Virtually all the parts of a plant or tree can be utilized for the production of functional artefacts. For instance, the leaves of some plant species like the palm tree can be used in producing interesting temporary hats for joyous occasions. The palm fronds or branches can be split and woven into baskets and other forms of receptacles for the storage and preservation of farm produce and personal belongings. The trunks of plant species like Sese, Asanfena, Sapele, Mahogany, Wawa and others can be used for carving beautiful and functional sculptural figures. What about the seeds from these plants? They can be stringed with a thread and used for producing various beads for body adornment. The form, shape and textures of the trees were and are powerful sources of idea development for both past and present artists. The harms in the colors of flowers have been mimicked by designers of packages and other visual communication tools as their color schemes.

Animal Source

This reflects to the resources obtained from animals. Paramount among them is the skins, hides and kips of both small and large animals which are used for producing leather through the tanning process. The leather material can be used in producing countless articles such as hats, jackets, belts, lampshades, furniture, table mats, wall hangings etc. The furs and feathers of some mammals and birds are used in producing bristles of brushes. Some are used in producing quills for the writing of calligraphy while others are faded in beautiful colors and used in making brooches and other fine decorations in clothes.

The bones and ivory of some animal species can be carved into interesting articles and figures. Some are used for producing musical instruments like horns that produce nice sounds for entertainment purposes. The fat of some of these animals is used in producing binders for paintings and sometimes glue. The teeth of some animals can be used in producing pendants and other forms of jewelery for the adornment of the body.

Mineral Source

This reflects to the resources obtained from the soil or hidden in the deep caverns of the earth. They include precious metals like gold, silver, bronze, bauxite etc. These precious metals are cast into beautiful sculptural figures. Others are used in producing medals and other forms of jewelery. Other precious and semi-precious stones like diamond, turquoise and others are also used by artists especially jewelers in producing brooches, crests, and jewelery of all kinds.

Moreover, the pottery and ceramic materials such as clay, plaster of Paris, cement, glazes and other important chemicals are obtained from the minerals of the environment. Vases, tiles, wares and pots of diverse shapes and colors are produced by artists as a result of the resources gleaned from the mineral sources of the environment.

How To Arrange Motifs in Creating Pleasing Designs

A motif is a principal or main design in a composition. When the motif appears together with other designs in the composition, it domineers in size as well as the number in relation to the other designs. The motifs are larger in size and greater in number when compared with the other designs in a…

A motif is a principal or main design in a composition. When the motif appears together with other designs in the composition, it domineers in size as well as the number in relation to the other designs. The motifs are larger in size and greater in number when compared with the other designs in a composition. The motifs, images or elements can be repeated and organized in several pleasing patterns in a composition. Motifs, images or elements can be repeated according to the following formats.

i. Full drop format
ii. Half drop design
iii. Simple format
iv. All over repeat
v. Positive and negative repeat
vi. Mirror reflection design

Full Drop Repeat: In this arrangement pattern, the full size of the motif or main design appears in all parts of the composition. The motifs either run horizontally or vertically through the substrate or material. The full view of the motifs must be seen.

Half Drop Repeat: In this design, the motifs or main designs are dropped by half by the first arrangement so that there will be halves at both ends of the cloth or paper such that when the sides of the paper or cloth are rolled, it would result in full designs.

Simple Repeat: In this arrangement style, the motifs are repeated across the material in a simple pattern. Sometimes, they are placed haphazardly in the composition without any forethought plan. The focus of simple repeat pattern is that the motifs should be repeated in the composition.

All Over Repeat: The all over repeat pattern has the principal designs or motifs appearing or running through all the parts of the material.
Positive and Negative Repeat: This repeat pattern is achieved by alternating the positive and negative areas of the picture area. The positive area or image area rotates in placement with the background which is usually composed of textures to form the repeat pattern. It is also referred to as Counter Change design.

Mirror Reflection Repeat: In this repeat pattern, the main design or motif is repeated in a mirrored manner. This is achieved by placing and alternating side by side the right and left parts of the main motifs or design.

The various repeats can be adopted and used by artists especially textile designers and graphic artists who typically engage in printing. However, a skilled printer must strive very hard to create other repeat formats on his own to meet the specifications of his work. These motif arrangements can be curled from the existing and already accepted formats used by many printers globally.

The Design and Technology Process: The Brain Behind Successful Creations

The design and technology process is a systematic chain of activities through which items are produced to address the needs of individuals and that of the society. It assists amateur and seasoned designers to produce hand-made articles to satisfy our basic needs. The paramount of these needs is shelter and then food and clothing. Articles…

The design and technology process is a systematic chain of activities through which items are produced to address the needs of individuals and that of the society. It assists amateur and seasoned designers to produce hand-made articles to satisfy our basic needs. The paramount of these needs is shelter and then food and clothing. Articles for storing items such as food, oil, etc. are made. Apparels for personal adornment and other products to improve our livelihood are made possible through activities in the design and technology process. Creative abilities are developed and enhanced through activities in the design and technology process. Organizational skills, production skills, thinking abilities are learnt as the artist goes through the design process. These skills, when developed, can be used in producing useful items which when sold can aid in satisficing one's economic needs.

The needs, tastes and aspirations of clients are satisfactorily met when steps in the design process are meticulously followed. Clients' priorities and specifications such as shape, size, color, etc are satisfied. This helps in maintaining good customer relations and mass mobilization of sales.

There are ten steps in the design and technology process. These are:

i. The problem identification
ii. Definition of the problem
iii. Investigation of the problem
iv. Possible solutions
v. Idea development
vi. Preliminary designing / model making
vii. Working drawing
viii. Prototype / model
ix. Evaluation
x. Production

(i) The problem identification:

This is the first stage of the design process where the existing problem that calls for the production of the item is clearly stated. For example, most students in a girls' school have been misplacing their ID cards and money.

(ii) Definition of the problem:

This is the second stage of the design process where the specific nature of the problem is pointed out together with the available materials and financial strength of the client. For example, most of the girls do not have purses for keeping those items that are why they lose them so easily. There is a heap of leather off-cuts deposited at the visual art studio of the school.

(iii) Investigation of the problem:

This is the third and most important stage in the design process wheree the designer engages in research and analysis to find the exact solution to the problem.

He asks himself several questions and tries to find answers by carrying out a thorough investigation. For instance, what is actually causing the misplacement of the money as well as the ID cards? Is it that the students are careless or there are thieves in the school? Or is it really that the students do not have a place to safely keep these things? A thorough investigation provided that the students need a purse to enable them safely keep these items.

He then probes into the shape, size and form of the article; the tools and materials for the production; the cost of the article; the method of production; the safety of the article; the cultural elements and the final appearance of the article.

• The shape, size and form of the article- This should be considered very carefully. For instance, since the purse is for students, it should not be too cumbersome and should be able to fit into the pockets of their school uniforms. A rectangular purse measuring 10cm length x 8cm width will be very appropriate.

• The tools and materials for the production- In selecting the tools and materials, the artist has to consider their availability, suitability and durability as well as the financial strength of clients. Since the leather off-cuts are freely abundant in the department, durable and suitable for the production of the purses, it will be used. Simple leather implements and tools in the visual art studio can be used for the production of the purse.

• The cost of the article- The cost of an article is usually dependent on the total production cost and the profit margin which ranges from 5% -10% of the total production cost. The cost of the purse should be moderate and affordable to the student body.

• The method of production- This refers to the production techniques used for the production of the item. Simple production techniques should be used in the production of the purse. These include cutting, stitching, glueing, and thonging. These will allow the visual art students to assist in the production of the purses.

• The safety of the article- This is ensuring that the produced item would not cause any injury or harm to the users. For instance, rough edges of the purse should be smoothened. Zippers and other fasteners of the purse should be fixed properly to avoid all forms of injury.

• The cultural elements- The choice of design and colors of the items should reflect the beliefs and aspirations of the client. It should reflect the culture of the client. Adinkra symbols that contain gems of our cultural values ​​and norms can be used in designing the purse.

• The final appearance of the article- The finishing technique used in finishing the product should ensure that the handling, safety and attractiveness of the item is enhanced or improved. For the purse, the surface of the leather used can be finished either by burnishing or polishing.

(iv) Possible solutions:

Reliable remedies in addressing the problem are suggested. Several ideas are obtained from the environment. Elements of design such as lines, shapes, colors etc. and principles of the design like harmony, unity, balance, dominance etc. are put to work in producing varieties of design for the purse. The most suitable design which will best solve the problem at stake is taken.

(v) Idea development:

The most suitable idea or design is further developed and worked on through series of stages by either adding or subtracting some aspects of the original design. The main parts of the original design are retained while the other details are worked on to develop a unique and original design. This would ensure that the most appropriate and suitable design is chosen for the work.

(vi) Preliminary designing / Model making:

Preliminary designs or model of the final design is made using materials. This makes the work more actual since it is in a three-dimensional form showing the length, breadth, and height of the work.

(vii) Working drawing:

At this stage, the various parts of the article are drawn to scale to assist the designer in the making of the final article. The actual measures of all the parts of the work are shown. For example, the measurements of the sides, base and gusset of the purse are clearly indicated in the working drawings. This can be used in producing patterns or templates of the article with ease. It would also assist manufacturers in producing the same item in mass quantities with accuracy and precision.

(viii) Prototype / Model:

This is the stage during which the working drawings are used in the construction of a prototype of the article. The prototype is the exact replica or photocopy of the final article. The prototype is constructed for the purposes of study or testing to know if the article would be able to solve the problem for which it was produced. For instance, the prototype purse is shown to some of the targeted group or end users so the students for their comments on the shape, color and other features of the purse to be produced.

(ix) Production:

This is the stage wherey the final article is produced using the tools, materials and production methods mentioned above. The comments of the end users when weighed and is positive, is factored in the actual production of the work.

(x) Evaluation:

This is the last stage of the design process where the product is finally tested or evaluated to see whether it can extremely address the problem. The work is shown to friends, teachers and experts in the field for their comments and evaluation. The final corrections for the product are made at this stage.

Twelve Things You Need To Know When Producing Articles By Hand

Hand-made designs and items are items that are produced with the hands with the help of hand tools, materials, and equipment. It exclusively refers to articles that are produced manually. To enhance the designing and production of hand-made items, the artist has to consider some important factors. i. Purpose of article The artist must consider…

Hand-made designs and items are items that are produced with the hands with the help of hand tools, materials, and equipment. It exclusively refers to articles that are produced manually. To enhance the designing and production of hand-made items, the artist has to consider some important factors.

i. Purpose of article

The artist must consider the purpose or need that calls for the production of the artefact. This will serve as a guide to the artist in knowing what to put in the designing and production of the artefact for it to meet its intended purpose. For example, there is the need for the production of a clutch bag to keep the items of an artist.

ii. Design, shape and form of the article

The artist has to critically consider the design, shape and form of the article. This should be in harmony with the intended purpose of the artefact. Moreover, the choice of colors, shapes and form should also reflect the age, social status, sex and possibly, the occupation of the end users of the article. For instance, if the article is meant for teenagers, males, females, students, nurses or teachers, viewers must be able to reliably tell from the design, shape and form of the article. Wallets for females may be produced with synthetic leather colors such as pink or blue with oval shaped design as well as floral patterns.

iii. Technical qualifications of the article- The techniques and styles that would have been used for the production of the article should be carefully considered by the artist. The technique to be used for the production of the product should be suitable for the material to be used for the work as well as the purpose of the article borne in mind.

iv. Nature and suitability of materials to be used

The material chosen for the production of the article should suit the purpose intended for the article. For instance, if the purpose of the clutch bag to be produced is to keep items to be used by the artist, the designer should choose a material that can hold the said items and ensure their protection. The designer can ask himself or herself some questions such as 'Will a clutch bag produced with leather, cardboard, or cloth be able to keep these items of the artist?' A very appropriate material should be chosen for the production of the article with the purpose of the article in mind.

v. Occident on which the article will be used

The occasion during which the article to be produced will be used should be known to help the artist to choose appropriately the designs, colors and form of the article. For instance, if a greeting card is to be made, the artist must know the occasion for which the card is being designed for. Is it Christmas, birthday, examination or get-well-soon card? The occasion would dictate to him the sort of colors and designs to use.

vi. Article to be used by one or several people

The number of users of the article should be known by the artist. This would assist him in the selection of his material, design and shape of the article. For example, if the article would be used by just one person, the artist can factor that individual's preference and taste such as choice of shape, color etc. in the designing and production of the product. On the other hand, if the article will be used by several persons, the material to be used should be strong and durable to be able to protect the article from the frequent handling and usage of the masses of people. Moreover, the choice of design and shape of the article should reflect the taste of a greater number of the end users if not all of them.

vii. Designed to fit into the place where the article will be used

Where will the article be produced be used? Is it in a school, hospital, marketplace or office? This information should be known by the artist. There are some designs and colors that do not fit certain environs. For example, educational items will be suitable for articles intended for an educational institution while farm produce such as yam, corn, etc. They mean for articles to be used in the market squares.

viii. Preliminary designing or sketch models

Preliminary designs are the first designs that the artist puts on paper. The designs are what the artist has envisioned or brainstormed in his mind. This serves as a visual representation of the ideas in the mind of the artist.

ix. Cultural symbols to be used

The artist must fully understand the philosophies and ideologies behind the cultural symbols that he wants to use for the designing of the article. The interpretations of the symbols should harmonize with the purpose of the article. For example, the 'Duafe' Adinkra symbol which means beauty, hygiene and feminine qualities is very appropriate as a cultural symbol for a plaque designed to be hung in the hall of a women's association.

x. Functional aspect and aesthetic qualities of the article

This is the most important aspect that needs to be considered by the artist. The final product will be useless if it fails to meet the intended function for its production. Also, the artist has to consider the aesthetic elements to add up to the article. This would enhance the appearance and attractiveness of the article.

xi. Proficiency and dexterity in the use of hand tools, materials and techniques

The artist should know or possess the mastery skills in the handling and use of the hand tools, materials and techniques for the production of the article. This would reflect positively on the final article produced. A poor handing and usage of the hand tools, materials and techniques would certainly have a negative impact on the effectiveness of the article.

xii. Diligence, patience and tolerance

These are qualities that are needed to ensure that artists are able to produce articles with great mastery. The artist needs to cultivate and put these fine qualities to work.

Importance of Block Lettering and Its Construction Process

Block lettering is a general term used in describing all lettering styles that are drawn or constructed. They are constructed according to specifications using squares or blocks. A young designer or student can use a paper with the squares already drawn in them like a graph sheet. He / she can draw the squares on…

Block lettering is a general term used in describing all lettering styles that are drawn or constructed. They are constructed according to specifications using squares or blocks. A young designer or student can use a paper with the squares already drawn in them like a graph sheet. He / she can draw the squares on his / her own by drawing straight or parallel horizontal and vertical lines that cross each other at an angle. All letters with the exception of “M”, “W” and “I” take 5 squares down and 3 squares across. However, letters “W” and “M” take 5 down, 5 across. On the other hand, letter “I” take 5 squares down and 1 square across.

Block letters have several characteristics that make them different from other styles of lettering. Some of its distinct features are outlined below.

1. They have an equal or uniform thickness of strokes. That is all the parts of each of its letters are the same measurement. For instance, if the vertical stroke measures 2cm, the horizontal and circular parts of the letter also measures 2cm.
2. They have no serifs or finishing strokes. There are no ornamental projections at the ends of their letters.
3. All the letters stand erect in a vertical position. They do not slant but stands straight.
4. They are not written but are drawn or constructed.
5. Squares of equal sizes serve as aids in their construction.
6. They are bold and easy to read.

The style has been used for various purposes due to its distinct features. Some of these are listed below.

1. They are used in writing on signboards, billboards, and signposts because of its keen sense of legibility.
2. Block letters are used in writing the titles of books and magazines due to its simple form that readily attracts viewers.
3. They are used in writing the text on greeting cards like birthday cards, success cards, funeral cards etc.
4. They are used in writing names of shops, institutions, and companies because it is easy to read.
5. They are the most widely used style of text for the designing of communication design products such as posters, banners etc.

The construction is not a very painstaking task. As already discussed, constructing block letters involve the use of accurately measured squares on paper. If this is available, the artist has to follow the rules and guidelines that govern the construction of block letters.

Also, the artist has to use a pointed sharp pencil in the ruling of the squares and in the construction of the letters. All the measurements should be done accurately. It is advisable to use straight measuring instruments such as rulers to ensure precision and accuracy.

The curvy parts of the letters can be created using any suitable circular object such as the edges of coins or protractors.

It should be noted that the squares which serve as guides for the construction of the letters should have been created with a lighter grade pencil (HB or HH). The marks should be falsely created so that they could easily be erased after the construction of the letters.

The Problems in Screen Printing and Their Remedies

Printing from screens prepared from paper, silk and others are one of the efficient printing techniques in the modern society. However, the printing technique poses some challenges to amateur printers. Thus, solutions to some of these problems in screen printing have been suggested.

Printing from screens prepared from paper, silk and others are one of the efficient printing techniques in the modern society. However, the printing technique poses some challenges to amateur printers. Thus, solutions to some of these problems in screen printing have been suggested.

The Origin, Characteristics and Uses of Roman Lettering

The Roman lettering style was developed from an old inscription found at the foot of a column built by Emperor Trojan in Rome in 113 BC A Frenchman called Nicholas Jenson first created the Roman lettering style in the fifteenth century precisely in 1470. It is also referred to as 'Classical Roman lettering' or 'Quadrata'.…

The Roman lettering style was developed from an old inscription found at the foot of a column built by Emperor Trojan in Rome in 113 BC A Frenchman called Nicholas Jenson first created the Roman lettering style in the fifteenth century precisely in 1470. It is also referred to as 'Classical Roman lettering' or 'Quadrata'. The Roman alphabet was taken at least seven centuries to develop and did not contain the letters, J, U, and W.

Roman letters have ornamental or finishing strokes called serifs at both the top and bottom parts of the letters. These serifs give the vertical strokes of the letters stability and also make the letters graceful. The serif may be angular, thin, rounded or rectangular in their representations. These accounts for the varieties of serifs such as beaked serif, hairline serif, bracketed serif, sheared serif and slab serif.

There are other features that distinct this style of lettering from other forms of lettering. The letters have varying strokes of thick and thin. The vertical strokes are generally thick while the horizontal strokes are usually thin. Also, the letters have different proportions or sizes due to the transcending of thick and thin strokes. They are extremely beautiful and attractive because of the diversity in their stroke formation. Variety, which is a feature that breaks monotony or one format, is highly acclaimed with elegance by many people.

In addition, the letters stand erect or upright. This formal outlook of this lettering style makes it very suitable to be used for official documents. This explains why mot documents for such purposes are usually restricted to be created in this lettering style.

Furthermore, the letters are carefully drawn or constructed. Due to the close attention paid to proportion and space, measuring devices are used by amateur designers who create these letters manually. Measuring tools on design software help in creating accurate representations of letters on personal computers.

This lettering is widely used for various purposes. It is used in writing the reading materials in books, newspapers, and magazines due to its excellent trait of readability. Also, they are used in designing packages for products and greeting cards for wishing people success in examinations, speedy recovery in ill health situations and many others. Again, they are used in writing the text on posters, banners, and other visual communication tools. Moreover, messages on citations are written in Roman lettering style. Names of participants in workshops, seminars, and other educational programs are written in roman lettering styles on certificates.

It is one of the elegant lettering styles that ensures the design of products in visual communication. Its rudiments must be carefully mastered and utilized by artists to achieve the maximum benefits.

Creativity: Types, Qualities And Practical Steps On How To Be Creative

The word 'creativity' comes from the Latin term crea “to create or make”. It is the act of using one's own imagination to come out with new ideas, events or objects. It reflects to the bringing of new things into existence. Creativity can also be defined as the process of producing something that is both…

The word 'creativity' comes from the Latin term crea “to create or make”. It is the act of using one's own imagination to come out with new ideas, events or objects. It reflects to the bringing of new things into existence. Creativity can also be defined as the process of producing something that is both original and worthwhile. It also implies improvement of already existing ideas or rearranging old things and ideas in new forms. These definitions help us to understand that creativity is contradictory or opposite to copying.

Creative people try to develop and invent new things to solve problems wherever they find themselves. Creativity is experienced in every field of human endeavor such as art, engineering, sciences, medicine, police, law, trade, civil service, military, politics, teaching etc.

A creative person is someone who is able to use his own imagination or ideas to bring out new things which are very useful in our everyday life activities. There are two classes of creative persons, particularly High / Genius creative person and the Less / ordinary creative person. This classification of creative persons is dependent on three important factors. These are:

• Fluency – The total number of interpretable, meaningful and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus.

• Originality – The statistical rarity of the responses among the test subjects.

• Elaboration – The amount of detail in the responses

High / Genius creative person

This creative person possesses more general intellectual habits, such as openness, levels of ideation, autonomy, expertise, exploratory skills and so on. He / she is able to create items with ease; it comes naturally as if without efforts. Creative people tend to be more open to new experiences, more self-confident, more ambitious, self-accepting, impulsive, driven, dominant, and hostile when compared to people with less creativity. The lives of genius creative persons in history were marked by extreme dedication and a cycle of hard-work and breakthroughs as a result of their determination.

Less / ordinary creative person
This group of creative persons can create but usually needs direction or guidance. They are limited in their abilities and ideas. They usually exert them before they can create items. Most of them, usually need a push to spark their creative abilities.

There are various traits of a creative person. Some of these have been explained below.

(i) He is very curious and eager to learn or to find out things about his environment- A creative person always wants to find out why things happen as they do. He asks a lot of questions about things in his environment and he is ever ready to learn from people how some things were made.

(ii) He is ready to explore or try out new things and ideas- A creative person is always thinking of new things, how to address a particular issue in a different and more efficient manner. He tries to explore with various materials, tools, and techniques with the sole aim of addressing pertinent problems in his / her community.

(iii) He is hard working and does not give up easily in times of difficulty- A creative person is not lazy but takes what he does seriously. In the course of attending to his work, when he faces a difficulty a creative person does not give up on the work. On the contrary, he quickly generates a lot of ideas on how to deal with the difficulties. He keeps on trying till he overcomes the difficulty he encountered while attending to his work.

(iv) He is highly imaginative, practical oriented and experimental- He is always thinking of how to solve problems by producing or creating functional items. He is a scientist who tries variacies of methods and ideas so as to come out with a viable tool that is an absolute answer to a problem confronting communities and the nation.

(v) He accepts challenges and tasks and completes them- A creative person is very confident and has a high determination to succeed in any task assigned to him. He is not a coward, but a positive-minded person who is poised to be victorious. He does not leave a stone unturned in his work.

(vi) He is always hopeful, and self-disciplined- He has high hopes that his work will yield good fruits. He does not give room to disappointments and 'it can not be done' statement. He works to meet all deadlines and is faithful to his clients.

(vii) He is original- He does not steal ideas or copy existing ideas, products or items. On the other hand, he brings out new and first-hand ideas. A creative person can also improve the efficiency or workability of an existing item or product. However, he does not copy it but tries to address the shortcomings of the existing product all in the quest of producing a product that best solves the problem at stake.

(viii) He has a great interest and love for what he does- A creative person is very proud of what he does and has a keen delight in it. This is very evident in the passionate way he attends to what he does. Derogatory remarks about his work is like a drop of water to quench an uncontrolled fire, it does not affect his disposition and attitude towards his work or profession.

(ix) He is able to fit into a new situation- He finds his way easily, even in a new environment or situation. His presence is soon noticed and alarmed. He learns quickly and is able to adjust to his new environment be it a new duty, workplace, school etc.

(x) He is able to produce many ideas quickly- He is able to come out with a great variety of ideas which are fresh and well meaning. He is a good contributor of knowledge and skills. He is a thinker and a storehouse of ideas.

There are four vibrant stages or periods in the creative process. Each of them takes a great deal of time. The stages are Period of preparation, Period of incubation, Period of insight or inspiration and Period of verification, exclusion, perception, and evaluation.

1. Period of preparation

This is the first stage of the creative process where the creative person prepares himself or herself to handle the problem at stake. He gathers a lot of information on what he is about to do and explores the problem's dimensions. He also explores various learning techniques to help him amass an in-depth knowledge about the work he is about to do.

2. Period of incubation

This is the stage of the creative process wherey faces difficult while attending to the work and then take a temporary leave from the work. He engages himself with another work with the hope of finding a remedy to the problem he has encountered.

Incubation helps in creative problem-solving in that it enables “forgetting” of misleading clues. The absence of incubation may lead the problem solver to become fixated on inappropriate strategies of solving the problem. Creative solutions to problems arise mysteriously from the unconscious mind while the conscious mind is occupied with other tasks. Therefore, he keeps working on other things till he finally finds a solution to the problem.

3. Period of insight or inspiration

This is the period during which the creative person finds a solution to the problem, he encountered while doing the work. He leaves everything and quickly attends to the work. This may take days, weeks, months or even years. It is also referred to as Intimation and illumination period.

4. Period of verification, exclusion, perception and evaluation

At this stage, the creative person works very hard with great joy with the goal of completing the work. He shows the work to friends, relatives and experts for their appreciation and criticisms.

Spicing Your Drawings With Movement: Consult The Book of Perspective

It is a way of drawing objects or composing scenes to create an illusion of distance. It is the science of vision by which the artist can create the appearance of depth and distance on a two-dimensional surface. It is any graphical system used to create the illusion of three-dimensional images and / or spatial…

It is a way of drawing objects or composing scenes to create an illusion of distance. It is the science of vision by which the artist can create the appearance of depth and distance on a two-dimensional surface. It is any graphical system used to create the illusion of three-dimensional images and / or spatial relationships on two-dimensional surfaces.

There are two main types of perspective drawing. These are Linear perspective and Aerial or Atmospheric perspective.

Linear Perspective

This type of perspective deals with lines and forms of things. It is a method of depicting objects on a flat surface so that the dimensions or sizes of objects shrink or reduce in size with distance. Each set of parallel, straight edges of any object, whether a building or a table, will follow lines that historically converge at a vanishing point. Typically this point of convergence will be along the horizon, as buildings are built level with the flat surface. When multiple structures are aligned with each other, such as buildings along a street, the horizontal tops and bottoms of the structures will all typically converge at a vanishing point.

There are three forms of linear perspective. These are Parallel / one-point perspective, Angular / two-point perspective and Oblique / Isometric / three-point perspective.

Parallel / One-point Perspective

In parallel perspective, the plane lies parallel to the picture plane and all parallel lines moving horizontally away from the viewer converge at a vanishing point. However, all vertical lines remain vertical while the sizes of the objects decrease in size as they move towards the vanishing point. It has only one vanishing point.

Angular / Two-point Perspective

In this type of perspective, the plane is drawn at an angle to the picture plane. It usually has two sets of parallel lines which do not meet at the same point, but rather converge at different vanishing points though they share one horizon. The sizes of objects reduce as they move towards each of the vanishing points. It has two vanishing points.

Oblique / Isometric / Three-point Perspective

This type of perspective is characterized by a plane with three equal axes at right angles. It has three vanishing points and as usual, the objects reduce in size as they move towards each of the three vanishing points.

Aerial / Atmospheric Or Color Perspective

This is the creation of depth or distance in a drawing by the use of color. Depth or distance is illustrated by reducing the contrast or value in colors of objects in more distant objects, and by making their colors less saturated. This will reproduce the effect of atmospheric haze, and cause the eye to focus primarily on objects drawn in the foreground. Colors of objects closer to the viewer or in the foreground is brighter while colors of objects far from the viewer and above the horizon become pale or dull in value.

The basic principles on which all perspective drawings are based are:

1. Objects in distance appear smaller than objects closer to the viewer.
2. Colors in distance appear duller and paler than objects close to the viewer.
3. Objects close to the viewer always appear sharper and clearer.
4. Parallel lines going in one direction away from the viewer must be seen as converging to the single point on the horizon known as a vanishing point.
5. Parallel lines never meet but that they appear to do so.

The relevant tips for perspective drawings are:

1. The horizon is always at the eye level, no matter how long or high one gets.
2. If an object is above eye level, its underside will be seen.
3. High objects are seen above eye level.
4. Neither top nor bottom is seen if the object is at eye level. Big objects are often seen at eye level.
5. An object is below the eye level if the top is seen. Small and low objects are seen below the eye level.
6. All circular objects are seen in perspective form an ellipse.

Perspective has much relevance in drawing. Some of these have been stated below.

1. It helps in creating the illusion of distance.
2. It helps to add the appearance of a third dimension to a working surface.
3. It ensures simulating on a flat, two-dimensional surface, or in a shallow space the three-dimensional characteristics of volumetric forms and deep space.
4. Aerial or atmospheric perspective is used to blur outlines, limit details, and alters hues towards the cool colors and to reduce color saturation and value contrast.
5. It helps in grading tones and colors which suggest distance.

Artists must strive to show perspective in their drawings to achieve movement in their works of art.

Aesthetics: Artists’ Description of Beauty in Creation

Aesthetics is a branch of science that deals with the study of the theory of beauty. It is the philosophy and study of the nature of beauty in arts. Aesthetics play a very vibrant role in our everyday life activities such as speaking, sitting, talking, eating, dressing, etc. The various senses together with the emotions…

Aesthetics is a branch of science that deals with the study of the theory of beauty. It is the philosophy and study of the nature of beauty in arts. Aesthetics play a very vibrant role in our everyday life activities such as speaking, sitting, talking, eating, dressing, etc. The various senses together with the emotions like love, joy, hope, amusement help us in expressing our aesthetic feelings toward artefacts and expressive activities.

There are three types of theories in aesthetics. These are Imitation and Liberal Qualities, Formalism and Design Qualities and Emotionalism and Expressive Experience.

i. Imitation and Liberal Qualities: It focuses on realist presentation of the subject matter or an imitation of life or what one sees in the real world. It involves accurate representations of things or objects in nature.

ii. Formalism and Design Qualities: This theory of aesthetics emphasizes on the design qualities of an artifact. It focuses on the arrangement of the elements guided by the principles of design or composition such as balance, unity, proportion, etc.

iii. Emotionalism and Expressive Experience: This theory of aesthetics is concerned with the content of the work of art and the nature of art to convey a message to the viewer. It stresses on the interpretation of the work that the philosophical, cultural or symbolic meanings associated with the work. Emotionalism requires a strong communication, feeling, mood or ideas from the work to the viewer. This aesthetic theory is concerned very much with the emotional feelings associated with the work. This could be fear, sadness, anxiety, happiness, hatred etc.

Although one or two of these aesthetic theories can be used in judging or criticizing an art depending on the type and purpose of the criticism, it is appropriate or best to employ all the three theories in the criticism of a work of art. This is because if one limits itself to only one of the aesthetic theories to appreciate and criticize an artwork, some unique or interesting aspects may not be discovered that is why it is advised that the three theories should be implemented in the criticism of an artwork.

Aesthetic Training and Education

Aesthetic training or education is the studies or learning about our environment through the human senses with the aim of training our sense of aesthetics. This training takes time and is a graduate for one to be an expert in aesthetics. This experience or knowledge about aesthetics amassed over a long period of time is termed as Aesthetic Experience.

Aesthetic Education involves how we apply the various senses effectively in learning about the things in our environment. This training largely comes about when we engage in practical activities in art such as drawing, painting, sculpting etc. where our six senses are at work.

Qualities needed for Aesthetics

1. Awareness of the unity of the senses. The artist should be aware that all the six senses work together and will help in making better judgments as to what is beautiful or not.

2. Recognition that the senses are our only means of gathering information.

3. Awareness that sound, touch, lines, colors etc have variations in their aesthetic qualities.

The Role of Aesthetics in our lives

1. Aesthetics helps us to make better judgments or develop good taste.
2. It helps us to appreciate nature and our environment as a whole.
3. It helps us to pass good comments about an artwork.
4. It helps us to appreciate beauty.
5. It helps in developing friendship and understanding between people of different cultures.

A Critical Overview of Visual Elements for Artistic Creation

Elements of design are the basic units of a work of art like painting, drawing or any other visual piece. They are the ingredients used in the creation of any artistic piece. The elements of design used in art include dot, line, shape, plane, color, space, texture, weight, and value. They are line, form, shape,…

Elements of design are the basic units of a work of art like painting, drawing or any other visual piece. They are the ingredients used in the creation of any artistic piece. The elements of design used in art include dot, line, shape, plane, color, space, texture, weight, and value. They are line, form, shape, color, space and texture. The artist puts the visual elements together to make a statement in art the same way we put words together to form a sentence. Every artist must know and understand them.

Line: It is the product of a moving point of a marking tool such as a pencil creates a path of connected dots on a paper. This path of connected dots or mark left by a moving point is referred to as a line. Line is defined as the path of a dot through space. This indicates that it takes a move to create a line. Examples of lines in the natural and manmade environment include leaves and branches of trees, rivers, the contours of a bird, outlines of electrical gadgets like Television set, speakers, computers etc. A skilled artist uses lines to control the movement of the viewer's eyes. Lines lead the eye of the viewer into, around and out of visual images in an artwork.

Dot: It is a small round spot. It is usually created from the nibs of writing tools such as pencil, pen, crayon, etc. Pebbles, fruits, human heads are examples of dots in nature.

Shape: A shape is defined as an enclosed area. It is an area that stands out from the space next to or around it due to a defined or implied boundary. This area is clearly set off by one or more of the other five visual elements of art. It is the artist's unique way of representing ideas in two dimensions. Shapes are flat. They are limited to only two dimensions: length and width. A shape may have an outline or boundary around it. Examples of shapes in the natural and manmade environment include shapes of human head, stones, fruits, rectangles, squares, circles etc.

Form: It is an object with three dimensions so length, width (breadth) and depth (height). It is the shape of volume or mass. Forms can be grouped into two namely geometric forms and organic forms. Geometric forms include tables, pots, statues etc. while examples of organic forms are stones, trees etc. The only difference between form and shape is that shapes do not have depths but forms do.

Space: It is considered as a boundless area. It is the distance between, around, above, below and within shapes and masses. It is a measurable distance between pre-established points. A void or vacuum in which other elements are actualized or seen is space. Spaces can be seen in both two and three dimensional forms. There are two kinds of space that positive space which is the space occupied by the objects in a picture and negative space that is the space around objects in a composition or picture.

Texture: This is the surface character or quality of materials. It refers to how things feel or look as though they may feel if touched. This may be smooth, rough, coarse, hard or soft. Texture can be experienced specifically through two of our senses thus the sense of sight and the sense of touch. However, texture can be perceived in the mind. Texture comes in four basic forms: actual, simulated, abstract and invented.

Mass: It is the implied or actual bulk, weight, size or magnitude of an object. In a two dimensional drawing or painting, mass returns to a large area or form of one color.

Color: It plays a major role in the elements of design. It is the reflection of white light on an object or sensations created on the eye by rays of decomposed light. Color may vary in degrees of dullness or brightness and lightness or darkness. All natural and manmade objects that surround us have colors. Tomatoes, flowers, plants, cars, clothes etc display varieties of colors.

Value: This is the degree of lightness or darkness existing in color. Value is determined by the amount of light reflected by a surface. Value is also referred to as tone.

These elements of artistic creation have their own distinctive features that must be known by artists especially amateurs in the art profession so that they can mature into creative giants in the art industry.